The state of ‘drugs in sports’ is about to take a monumental leap into the unknown with the introduction of gene therapies/gene doping. It’s a term people have heard for a while, but it’s going to be a reality in the very near future, perhaps even by the next Olympic games.
Gene therapy is being looked at as a treatment for a wide variety of diseases. As with many drugs/treatments intended to treat or avoid some disease, there is an overlap to possible athletic uses. Gene doping will make anabolic steroids, growth hormone, insulin, and the countless other drugs often employed by athletes to get an edge look like Pez candy. Furthermore, it will be difficult to impossible to detect. For example, to this day, there’s still no reliable test for growth hormone use, although the IOC keeps hinting there is one, I suspect only to scare the athletes off from using it….which does not work BTW… To give the reader an idea of this brave new world of gene therapy, below is a report –via The Associated Press – from a study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

Gene therapy creates super-muscles

Experts worry that athletes will take unfair advantage

SEATTLE – Gene injections in rats can double muscle strength and speed, researchers have found, raising concerns that the virtually undetectable technology could be used illegally to build super athletes.
A University of Pennsylvania researcher seeking ways to treat illness said that studies in rats show that muscle mass, strength and endurance can be increased by injections of a gene-manipulated virus that goes to muscle tissue and causes a rapid growth of cells.
“The things we are developing with diseases in mind could one day be used for genetic enhancement of athletic performance,” Lee Sweeney of the University of Pennsylvania said Monday at the national meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Sports officials said the gene therapy has the potential of betraying the very essence of sport — athletes using their natural talents and training to compete.
It would, said Tom Murray of the Hastings Center, a research organization, be like allowing an athlete to compete in the Boston Marathon wearing roller blades.
“Performance-enhancing drugs have been a concern in sports and gene therapy has the potential to kick it up a notch,” said Murray, who has studied the issue of doping in athletics. “It makes the challenges greater (of controlling performance-enhancing measures).”
Murray said he “has no doubt athletes will be in touch with Sweeney” when they learn of his research.
Sweeney said that already half the e-mails he receives are from athletes or sports trainers.
Playing catch-up
Richard Pound of McGill University and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which controls doping in athletics, said the sports community lost control of drugs for performance-enhancement in the 1960s to 1990s and “we’ve been playing catch-up ever since.”
Now gene therapy looms as an even more serious threat, he said.
“Sport is and should be an effort to see how far you can go with your natural talents honed by exercise and skill perfection,” he said, and not by manipulating genes to build muscle.
He said the international sports community already has regulations forbidding gene therapy for performance improvement, and his agency hopes to be active in efforts to control use of the technique as the science develops.
Muscle strength doubled
Sweeney said that his laboratory studies show that injecting into muscles a manipulated virus that carries a gene for insulinlike growth factor 1, also known as IGF1, causes target muscles in rats to grow in size and strength by 15 to 30 percent. The inserted gene causes formation of extra IGF1 which, in turn, prompts the growth of muscle cells.
When the technique was used on rats that were also put through an exercise program, the animals doubled their muscle strength, he said.
If a normal person would inject this, their muscles would get stronger without them doing anything,” said Sweeney. “If they are athletes in training, the rat study indicates that their training would be much more effective, injury would be overcome more easily and the effect of the training would last a much longer time.”
The effect appeared to last throughout the life of the rats.
He said the technique was designed so that the IGF1 gene stays in the target muscle and does not move into the bloodstream where it could cause damage to other organs.
The research was published in the March issue of the Journal of Applied Physiology.
Treatment for muscular maladies
Sweeney said the gene therapy was being developed to treat muscular dystrophy and the natural decline in muscle strength associated with aging.
Unlike performance-enhancing drugs, Sweeney said the gene therapy could not be detected by blood or urine tests. He said it would require a biopsy of specific muscles followed by a sophisticated DNA laboratory study to detect the use of gene therapy in an athlete.
Sweeney said because of the potential of cancer and other side effects, it may be years before the muscle-strengthening gene therapy is ready for human trials.
“There are issues of safety,” he said. “It is not going to be as trivial as taking a drug.”
Before it is tested in humans, said Sweeney, his lab hopes to develop a way to turn the inserted genes on and off. That way, if problems develop then the gene could be shut down.
Gene therapy regulated
Gene therapy has been conducted experimentally for some diseases, but it is tightly controlled by federal regulation in the United States. At least one patient, being treated for a liver disorder, died in a gene therapy trial. Two children in Europe treated with inserted genes for immune deficiency later developed leukemia.
Sweeney said the gene therapy technique is highly complex and requires expert laboratory preparation.
“This is not something an athlete could do in his garage,” he said. “The athlete couldn’t do this without a lot of help.”
He said that some countries, in a drive for athlete glory, could allow the gene therapy, just as earlier in history Olympic programs in some countries tolerated the use of performance-enhancing drugs.
“That is the short-term fear,” said Sweeney.
The Brink Bottom Line: It should be noted that unlike anabolic steroids, this is not something some home chemist could whip up. At this point, it takes some serious know how few posses along with associated lab, etc. Regardless, if some country less scrupulous about such things puts their resources to this (I seem to recall some Chinese female swimmers a few years back sporting mustaches…), it won’t be long until we see athletes breaking all sorts of records and testing “clean” for anabolics. It’s a brave new world out there…
Gene Therapy Article

  1. imre 15 years ago

    Again an interesting article, and unfortunately it is already a reality. As I remember, at Beijing 2008 some athletes were found with different DNA than before 4 years 🙁

  2. Author
    Will Brink 15 years ago

    Imre, I have not seen anything on changes in DNA after this last Olympics and would need more details to take a guess if it has any relationship to gene doping, which I honestly doubt. If you have a URL on that, feel free to send it along.

  3. imre 15 years ago

    Sorry Will, my writing was quicker than my thinking. As you say, it is probably not in relationship with gene doping.
    It was my first thought when I read the article, that maybe gene doping is the answer.
    The case was on the news(TV), did not searched for it over internet. They said that 2 female athletes were found with different DNA than on their test before 4 years, and they were sent home, this is only what I remember. Not sure, maybe they were competing in athletics discipline. Neither of my friends could not explaine how it is possible, that is the only reason I remember(CSI movies are also in my country popular) 🙂 . But it was not sample cheating, mixing, or scimilar.

  4. fairlane 15 years ago

    “Yes hi, I’d like to alter my DNA so I can look like Lee Haney, do you take American Express?” 🙂
    I am against any unfair advantage in sports, and the above comments in the article reflect that. But I think it would be good in the long run to help individuals who want to battle sarcopenia, and other diseases, eventually leading to the common bodybuilder who wants to go farther. I’ll wait of course until they perfect it more, but I wouldn’t want to guess what legal issues will pop up, as the technology matures.

  5. James 15 years ago

    Wow, I don’t care if it’s fair or how well it seems to work for rats. I will not be lining up to be infected with a genetic freak virus.

  6. As a Newbie, I am always searching online for articles that can help me. Thank you

  7. LOUDelf 15 years ago

    Bring it on! Maybe that’ll fix the fractures in my sternum so I can get my shriveled little butt to the gym again.

  8. Author
    Will Brink 15 years ago

    No more softball for you!

  9. LOUDelf 15 years ago

    Softball’s fine… lightpoles in the field-of-play? Now that’s the problem.

  10. quality reviews 15 years ago

    is there a secret character being added?

  11. imre 14 years ago

    Hello Will, I am making order om my bookshelf and found an article about gene doping, Sport Injury Bulletin issue 59, May 2006, written by Ray Shulman. I have it also in .pdf. so if you are interested, send me a mail and I send it to you.

  12. Seasons 13 years ago

    Maybe you should edit the blog title Building the next generation of super athletes with gene doping to more suited for your content you make. I enjoyed the the writing all the same.

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